Masters Athletes may have some nutritional needs that differ from those of younger athletes. By Masters, we’re referring to athletes over age 40. This is currently the cut-off for Crossfit. Here’s what we know about Masters and protein:
- Masters athletes may need more protein than younger athletes regardless of sport.
- Consuming more protein may slow normal loss of muscle mass that occurs over time.
- Masters athletes doing resistance training may need more protein than younger people because they don’t synthesize muscle proteins as quickly.
Masters Athlete Nutrition: what we know today.
The amount of FDA recommended protein stands at about 0.66 grams per kilogram of body weight. This number was derived by looking at many studies of people. Some of the studies looked at the average amount eaten by healthy people. Others looked at nitrogen balance: how much comes in vs how much comes out. People who lose more nitrogen than they take in through food are said to be in negative nitrogen balance. For these studies, the recommended amount would be the amount where the amount of nitrogen coming in is equal to the amount leaving (urine). There are a number of limits with these approaches. They do not answer the question of “what is best”. They have not focused on athletes or older adults. Weight lifters and others trying to add muscle have traditionally eaten a lot of protein. Way more than 0.66 grams/kilogram. Eating more than the recommended amount of protein doesn’t seem to hurt. Just don’t leave out other nutrients.
Scientists who work in this area have concluded that 0.8 g/kg is better for masters athletes than the old level of 0.66 g/kg. Many people will find number low and may get upset about. Don’t worry if you’ve just had a WTF moment. After all, we’ve been urged to consume at least a full gram of protein, 1.2 g/kg or even more. This may be perfectly valid if you are interested in strength gain or preservation of muscle mass during aging. We simply don’t know what is “optimal.” “Optimal” will, of course, depend on many different factors. The increase from 0.66 g/kg to 0.8 g/kg is 25%. That is a big jump.
Here’s what may help preserve or increase muscle mass for masters athletes
- Eat more than 0.8 g/kg/day to increase strength (you have to lift too.)
- Get some protein soon after a training session
- Some recommend taking 5 g/day of creatine monohydrate. There is some evidence that it can boost strength gains and help increase fat free mass. Keep in mind that creatine can also increase water retention. Some of the gains in fat free mass may just be water.
- For endurance: sadly, there is no evidence that carb loading helps.
- Carbohydrates are important. If your body doesn’t have carbohydrates it will use some of your protein for energy. It will use fat too, but it will also use muscle.
What kind of protein is best for Masters Athletes?
There is a lot of research showing that red meat increases risk of cancer. I know a lot of people like red meat. But evidence says: avoid it. If you do eat red meat avoid grilling or charring it. Burning food creates carcinogens. Cooking fats at high temperatures produces acrolein. Acrolein may contribute to development of Alzheimers. Vegetable protein (beans and nuts) seems to lower risk of cancer. It also seems to lower risk of heart disease and diabetes. The paleo diet is against beans. There is really no reason not to eat beans other than that some popular diet books put them in the “bad” category. Beans should be well-cooked. If you are not used to eating beans . . . you will probably get better at digesting them peacefully. You may even get good at it.
It looks like masters athletes need more protein than others. The recommended increase from 0.66 g/kg/day to .80 g/kg/day is a 25% increase. Until we know more, increasing your protein intake may help you maintain or increase muscle mass. Limit red meat. Many people seem to be devoted to red meat, but the vast majority of research indicates it is a risky protein source. Avoid fish high in mercury (tuna, swordfish). Mercury accumulates in the body over time and has been linked to a number of poor health outcomes. Increasing protein intake with vegetable protein is a healthy strategy.
Tarnopolsky MA (2008). Nutritional consideration in the aging athlete. Clinical journal of sport medicine : official journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine, 18 (6), 531-8 PMID: 19001886
Bazzano LA, He J, Ogden LG, Loria C, Vupputuri S, Myers L, & Whelton PK (2001). Legume consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in US men and women: NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Archives of internal medicine, 161 (21), 2573-8 PMID: 11718588
Position Statement (2010). Selected Issues for the Master Athlete and the Team Physician Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42 (4), 820-833 DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181d19a0b